FHO surgery can be an effective way to treat hip problems and restore pain-free mobility in some dogs. In today's post, our Upland vets describe how a hip joint should work, problems that could affect your dog and cat's hip, and what’s involved in FHO surgery.
Why Your Dog and Cat May Have Hip Problems
Hip problems in dogs can occur due to genetics, old age, injury, or a combination of both of those factors.
- Hip dysplasia is typically a genetic disorder. Hip dysplasia causes your dog and cat's hip joints to develop abnormally.
- Legg-Perthes disease is another condition that can affect your pet’s hips. This condition is characterized by a lack of blood flow to the top of the femur, leading to the spontaneous degeneration of the head of the femur, resulting in arthritis and/or hip damage.
How Your Pet's Hip Joints Should Work
Your pet's hip joints function as a ball and socket mechanism. The ball is located at the head of the thigh bone (femur) and rests inside the hip bone’s acetabulum (socket portion of the hip joint).
During normal hip function, the ball and socket work together allowing easy and pain-free movement. When injury or disease breaks down or disrupts your pet’s normal hip function, pain and other mobility issues can result due to rubbing and grinding between the two parts. Inflammation caused by a poorly functioning or damaged hip joint can also reduce your dog and cat’s mobility and quality of life.
If you have a small dog and cat, FHO - femoral head ostectomy - orthopedic surgery may be able to ease your dog and cat's pain and restore your pet's normal pain-free mobility.
Hip Conditions in Dogs and Cats That May Benefit from FHO Surgery
There are numerous hip conditions in cats and dogs that can benefit from FHO surgery, including:
- Hip dysplasia
- Severe arthritis
- Joint dislocation (luxation)
- Hip fractures
- Legg-Perthes disease
- Weak muscles in hind legs
That said, not all dogs are suitable for this surgery. To be a candidate for FHO surgery, your dog and cat must weigh less than 50 lbs. A smaller pet’s weight will work to their advantage in this scenario since the false joint that will form after surgery can more easily support a smaller body compared to a larger or overweight dog.
Signs That Your Pet May Have Hip Issues
Your dog and cat may be suffering from a hip problem if they show one or more of the following symptoms:
- “Bunny hopping”
- Limping when walking
- Stiffness in joints
- Decreased tolerance or motivation to exercise or play
Dog and Cat FHO Surgery
During the FHO surgery, the surgeon will remove the femoral head leaving the socket portion of the hip empty. Your cat or dog's leg muscles will initially hold the femur in place as scar tissue develops between the femur and the acetabulum. Gradually over some time, a “false joint” will begin to form and scar tissue will act as a cushion between the femur and the acetabulum.
Recovering After FHO Surgery
Every dog and cat is different. Following surgery, your pet may need to stay in the veterinary hospital for several hours or several days for post-surgical care. The duration of your dog and cat's stay will depend upon your pet's overall health and several other factors. Recovery from FHO surgery usually happens in two phases:
In the days immediately following surgery, you and your vet will focus on controlling pain with medications such as prescription non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. These will help reduce pain, inflammation, and swelling at the surgical site.
You should keep your pet from strenuous physical activity for 30 days after surgery, and most cats and dogs require about six weeks to recover. Your pet won't be allowed to run or jump during their recovery period, however, you can take your pet for short 'on-leash' walks.
If your pet is not in too much pain, your vet may recommend passive range of motion exercises to encourage your dog and cat's hip joint to move through its natural range of motion once again.
Approximately one week after surgery, the second phase of recovery begins and will involve gradually increasing physical activity so your pet can rebuild muscle mass and strengthen the hip joint.
Gradually increasing physical activity helps to prevent scar tissue from becoming too stiff, and will improve your dog and cat's long-term mobility. Appropriate exercise in this phase may include walking upstairs independently, or walking on hind legs while you hold their front legs in the air.
After about a month, if your dog and cat have recovered adequately, your pooch should be ready to resume regular physical activity. That said, high-impact activity should still be avoided at this time.
A mobility aid or dog and cat lift harness may be useful throughout the Phase 2 healing process. Pets who were relatively active before surgery tend to recover more quickly thanks to the increased strength of muscle mass around the hip joint.
Caring For Your Pet After FHO Surgery
Care requirements will vary depending on your cat or dog's circumstances and needs. If your pet does not fully recover within the typical six-week recovery period, formal physical rehabilitation therapy may be recommended. If your dog and cat seem to be in pain or are not doing as well as expected following FHO surgery, contact your veterinarian right away.
Note: The advice provided in this post is intended for informational purposes and does not constitute medical advice regarding pets. Please make an appointment with your vet for an accurate diagnosis of your pet's condition.